Highly Efficient Retinal Metabolism In Cones

Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones

After bleaching of visual pigment in vertebrate photoreceptors, all-trans retinal is reduced to all-trans retinol by retinol dehydrogenases RDHs. We investigated this reaction in purified carp rods and cones, and we found that the reducing activity toward all-trans retinal in the outer segment OS of cones is >30 times higher than that of rods. The high activity of RDHs was


Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones

After bleaching of visual pigment in vertebrate photoreceptors, all-trans retinal is reduced to all-trans retinol by retinol dehydrogenases RDHs. We investigated this reaction in purified carp rods and cones, and we found that the reducing activity...


Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones | PNAS

Oct 14, 2008· We found that the reduction of all-trans retinal and the production of 11- cis retinal are both much more efficient in cones. In addition, it was found that 11- cis retinal is formed from 11- cis retinol by a previously undescribed retinal-retinol redox ALOL -coupling reaction. Results Highly Efficient Reduction of all-trans Retinal in Cones.


Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones | PNAS

Oct 14, 2008· Highly Efficient Reduction of all-trans Retinal in Cones. All-trans retinal formed in the bleached visual pigment is reduced to all-trans retinol. Fig. 1A shows the time courses of the reduction of the exogenously applied all-trans retinal to all-trans retinol measured in the lysate of purified carp rods and cones. We routinely quantified the amount of rods and cones by


Highly Efficient Retinal Metabolism in Cones

and cones, and we found that the reducing activity toward all trans retinal in the outer segment OS of cones is >30 times higher than that of rods. The high activity of RDHs was attributed to high content of RDH8 in cones. In the inner segment IS in both rods and cones, RDH8L2 and RDH13 were found to be the major enzymes among RDH family proteins.


PDF Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones

We further found a previously unde- found that the reduction of all-trans retinal and the production scribed and effective pathway to convert 11-cis retinol to 11-cis of 11-cis retinal are both much more efficient in cones. In retinal in cones: this oxidative conversion did not require NADPⴙ addition, it was found that 11-cis retinal is formed from 11-cis and instead was coupled


PDF Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones

After bleaching of visual pigment in vertebrate photoreceptors, all-trans retinal is reduced to all-trans retinol by retinol dehydrogenases RDHs. We investigated this reaction in purified carp...


Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones

cones, it can be oxidized to 11-cis retinal with a hypothesized enzyme, 11- cis retinol dehydrogenase, that was assumed to be present in cones and requires NADP as a cofactor 12.


Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones.

Oct 03, 2008· In the present study, by using purified carp Cyprinus carpio rods and cones, we investigated the metabolism of all-trans retinal and 11-cis retinal within the photoreceptor cells. We found that the reduction of all-trans retinal and the production of 11- cis retinal are both much more efficient in cones.


Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones

We investigated this reaction in purified carp rods and cones, and we found that the reducing activity toward all-trans retinal in the outer segment OS of cones is >30 times higher than that of rods. The high activity of RDHs was attributed to high content of RDH8 in cones.


Energy metabolism of the visual system

Jul 22, 2010· The brain is one of the highest energy demanding tissues of the human body. Comprising only about 2% of the body weight, it consumes 20% of the total oxygen and about a quarter of the total glucose used for energy supply. 1 – 3 Within the brain, the visual system ranks amongst the highest energy-consuming systems. 4 This is of interest and importance because


Highly Efficient Delivery of Adeno-Associated Viral

Aug 06, 2020· Adeno-associated virus AAV has emerged as the preferred vector for targeting gene expression to the retina. Subretinally injected AAV can efficiently transduce retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors in primate retina. Inner and middle primate retina can be transduced by intravitreally delivered AAV, but with low efficiency.


Rod visual pigment optimizes active state, PubMed

Rod visual pigment optimizes active state to achieve efficient G protein activation as compared with cone visual pigments... is one of the causes of the high amplification efficiency of rods. Keywords: Fluorescence Spectroscopy; G Protein Activation Efficiency; G... Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / metabolism*


Substrate Specificity and Subcellular Localization

Background: In carp cones, 11-cis-retinal and all-trans-retinol are formed with 11-cis-retinol and all-trans-retinal present.Results: The substrate specificity, reaction mechanism, and subcellular localization of this reaction were determined.Conclusion: Substrate specificity is high for retinol but low for retinal, and the activity is present in the cone inner segment.Significance: The...


Explaining the functional differences of rods versus cones

Feb 14, 2012· The lifetime of an activated protein in the cascade is shorter in cones, and the synthetic activity of cGMP is much higher in cones. These findings explain the faster light responses in cones. In cones, retinoid metabolism is more efficient. Removal of all-trans retinal is faster in cones and a cone-specific AL–OL coupling reaction is present...


Retinal Development, Genetics and Therapy Section

Dec 20, 2021· The process of vision begins in the retina, and in humans, the retina supplies almost 30% of the sensory input received by the brain. Any damage to retinal neurons can have devastating consequences, including loss of vision. Retinal and macular diseases are a major cause of visual impairment and affect the quality of life of millions worldwide.


Substrate Specificity and Subcellular Localization

Dec 20, 2013· The cone retinoid cycle has been suggested to contribute significantly to pigment regeneration in cones. According to Mata et al., the maximum rate of the supply of 11-cis-retinal through the RPE retinoid cycle seems to be too low to regenerate the pigment for cones to function under high levels of steady illumination. They estimated that


RDH13L, an Enzyme Responsible for the Aldehyde... JBC

Cone photoreceptors require effective pigment regeneration mechanisms to maintain their sensitivity in the light. Our previous studies in carp cones suggested the presence of an unconventional and very effective mechanism to produce 11-cis retinal, the necessary component in pigment regeneration. In this reaction (aldehyde-alcohol redox coupling reaction, AL-OL


Vitamin A and Vision | SpringerLink

Nov 10, 2016· Miyazono S, Shimauchi-Matsukawa Y, Tachibanaki S, Kawamura S 2008 Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:16051–16056 PubMed PubMedCentral CrossRef Google Scholar. 95.


Details of a Researcher MIYAZONO Sadaharu

English: Miyazono S, Shimauchi-Matsukawa Y, Tachibanaki S, Kawamura S, Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.105 p.16051 16056 , 2008, IF:9.681 28. English: Kawamura S, Tachibanaki S, Arinobu D, Takemoto N, Miyazono S, Phototransduction in carp...


Genes | Free Full-Text | A Rare Form of Retinal Dystrophy

Aug 22, 2017· Purpose: To identify the gene defect and to study the clinical characteristics and natural course of disease in a family originally diagnosed with oligocone trichromacy OT, a rare congenital cone dysfunction syndrome. Methods: Extensive clinical and ophthalmologic assessment was performed on two siblings with OT and long-term follow up data were


ES1 is a mitochondrial enlarging factor... Nature

Mar 01, 2016· Both rod and cone photoreceptor cells are high energy-consuming cells 1,2,3. To meet this high energy demand, numerous mitochondria cluster in the photoreceptor ellipsoid adjacent to the outer...


Explaining the functional differences of rods versus cones

Sep 01, 2012· Both respond to light electrically. Rods are highly light‐sensitive but cones are not. Because of this sensitivity difference, rods mediate night vision and cones mediate daylight vision. While a response to a brief light flash is rather slow in rods, it is brief in cones.... Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones. Miyazono, Miyazono...


ES1 is a mitochondrial enlarging factor contributing

Mar 01, 2016· Miyazono S., Shimauchi-Matsukawa Y., Tachibanaki S. & Kawamura S. Highly efficient retinal metabolism in cones. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 16051–16056 2008. [Europe PMC free article] [Google Scholar] Ramage L. et al. Functional cooperation of mitochondrial protein import receptors in yeast. EMBO J. 12, 4115–4123 1993.


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